麦秀歌
先秦:佚名
麦秀渐渐兮,禾黍油油。
彼狡童兮,不与我好兮。

纣[zhòu]name of an emperor; saddle part

构件:纟+寸
结构:左右结构 
造字方式:会意
纣,The crupper of a saddle; 马緧也。The preceding contracted, is supposed to be the phonetic.
商代最末的君主名,史称纣王[name of tyrant ,last emperor of Shang Dyn.]。历史上有名的暴君。

桀纣 贵为天子。——《 吕氏春秋 ·功名》。注:“贱仁多累曰纣。”

【故事】
纣:即帝辛,武乙曾孙,帝乙之子。才力过人而刚愎自用,沉湎酒色,荒淫侈靡。对人民残酷剥削,刑罚苛重,作炮烙之刑,杀鄂侯、九侯和大臣比干,连续发动对东夷的战争,引起人民与各诸侯的反抗。周武王乘机联合西南各族举兵攻商,牧野之战,商军阵前倒戈,纣大败,逃奔鹿台自焚死,商朝灭亡。

武王伐纣
商朝(前1600—前1046)最后一个帝王叫纣,他刚登上帝王之位时,还是很有作为的,与东方的部落作战,取得了一系列胜利。但渐渐地,他变得骄横起来,贪图享乐。他下令扩建都城,修造了华丽的宫殿和花园,过着穷奢极欲的生活;吃饭用的筷子是用象牙做的,酒杯则是玉做的;酒倾倒在一个大池子里,悬挂起来的肉看上去像一片树林;要求各个地方献美女,对宠爱的美女,他言听计从,答应她们的一切不合理要求。
为了维持自己的享乐生活,纣王向人民征收很重的赋税,人民对他越来越不满。人们起来反抗,纣王就以酷刑来镇压。他发明了一种叫“炮烙”的酷刑,把铜柱放在火上烧红,强迫“犯人”在铜柱上行走,“犯人”站立不住,就掉到火里烧死。大臣们规劝他,他或者不理会,或者将其处死。他的叔叔比干规劝他,他竟残忍地挖出了比干的心。他的哥哥则逃走了。就这样,商纣王变成了中国历史上有名的暴君。
与此同时,商的属国周则强大起来。周本来是个小国,在现在的陕西省。周文王死后,他的儿子周武王继承王位。武王看到商纣王如此荒淫无道,就准备讨伐商纣。在姜尚、周公旦等人的辅佐和帮助下,周国实行有利于人民的制度,变得日益强大。
后来,周武王看到时机成熟了,就率领几万精锐部队向商的都城进发。一路上,他联合了许多同样对商纣王的统治不满的部族,队伍更加庞大。周武王向人们指出纣王的各种罪恶,动员大家一起推翻其统治。这支联军很快推进到了距离商的都城不远的一个叫牧野的地方(在现在的河南省淇县)。
当时商朝的军队主力远在东方作战,无法赶回来,纣王没有办法,只好将大批奴隶临时武装起来,命令他们到牧野与周军决战。但这些奴隶连饭都吃不饱,怎么能有战斗力呢?况且他们很恨纣王,于是,奴隶大军就投降了周武王,反过来帮助周军进攻纣王。纣王逃到宫中高高的楼台上,无路可退,只好放火自杀了。也有人说,他是被周武王抓住处死了。
商朝就这样灭亡了,周武王建立的周朝(前1046—前256)成为中国历史上存在时间最长的王朝。
King Wu Attacks King Zhou
The last emperor in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) was named Zhou. For a period of time after assuming the throne, he ruled in a capable and responsible manner, winning a series of conquests against tribes in the east. In time, however, he became cruel, arrogant, greedy, and self-indulgent. Upon his orders, a capital city was built that was full of palaces and gardens, where he led a dissolute life. He had a large pond filled with wine, and the meat hanging in his storage rooms to dry looked like a forest. He commanded various regions of his domain to send him beautiful women, and he did whatever his favorite concubines asked him to do.
In order to maintain this luxurious life, King Zhou inflicted heavy taxes on the populace, who became more and more dissatisfied with his rule. When revolts began, King Zhou dealt with them severely through cruel punishments. He invented a kind of torture in which a copper beam was set over a burning fire, on which an offender had to walk back and forth. As the fire heated the copper, it scorched the feet of the person who eventually fell into the fire and burned to death. Senior officials admonished King Zhou to change his ways, but he either disregarded them or had them executed. His uncle Bi Gan also tried to discipline him, upon which King Zhou had Bi Gan's heart tom out.
His own brother fled. King Zhou became one of the infamous tyrants in Chinese history.
While all this was taking place, the state of Chou, a subject state to Shang, was growing ever more powerful. A small country at the beginning, it was located in the current position of Shaanxi Province. After the King Wen of Chou died, his son succeeded to the throne, a man called Chou Wuwang, or King Wu of Chou. King Wu could see that King Zhou of the state of Shang was ruling in a chaotic manner and he decided to plan for an invasion. With the able help of such ministers as Jiang Shang and Chou Gongdan, the state of Chou had implemented systems favorable to the people and as a result had become more powerful by the day.
Eventually, King Wu saw that the situation was ripe for action. He assembled several tens of thousands of superior troops and set out to attack the capital of the state of Shang. Along the way, his ranks were swelled by various tribes who had also been increasingly dissatisfied with the rule of King Zhou. King Wu reinforced their discontent by pointing out the heinous crimes of the ruler of Shang and mobilized all to rise up and end his reign. The alliance of troops quickly advanced to a place called Muye, not far from the capital of Shang, now in a place now called Qi County, in Henan Province.
The main force of the Shang armies was already engaged in war at the time, in the east, and was unable to return quickly to defend the capital. King Zhou had no alternative but to force a large contingent of slaves to fight on his behalf, ordering them to Muye to do battle against King Wu. These slaves hardly had enough to eat, however, and certainly had no strength with which to fight for King Zhou. What’s more, they hated his dominion over them and so promptly surrendered to King Wu and helped him attack. King Zhou fled to a high tower within the palace from which there was no escape. With his kingdom lost, he had the tower torched and committed suicide, although some people say that in the end he was caught by King Wu and put to death.
The great Shang Dynasty thereby came to an end. King Wu founded the Chou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE), which was to be in existence longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history.