Sample Sidebar Module

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Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_bottom position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_top position below the search.

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击壤歌
先秦:佚名
日出而作,日入而息。
凿井而饮,耕田而食。
帝力于我何有哉!

尧[yáo] a legendary ancient emperor-sage

尧yao2 yao
构件:戈+兀
结构:上下结构
造字本义:头顶陶器的人,中国古代最早的制陶者。
尧 Yao2. Knoll, mound. From 土 earth heaped up on a 兀 high base;高也,从三土在兀上。会意。Name of the celebrated Emperor Yao2 (22 Centimes B. C.)
【释义】
《説文解字》:堯,高也。从垚在兀上,高遠也。
白话版《说文解字》:尧,居于高处。字形采用“垚、兀”会义,表示“垚”在“兀”之上,高远之境。 ,这是古文写法的“尧”字。
【字源解说】
造字本义:头顶陶器的人,中国古代最早的制陶者。 古人常以部落或联盟首领的特长、或开创性的文明功绩来敬称他们的首领—— 最早推广系统用火的首领为“炎帝”;最早推广射箭习武的首领为“黄帝”;最早推广采摘种植的首领为“华”;最早推广农耕生产的首领为“夏”; 最早推广制陶的首领为“尧”;最早推行熟食制度的首领为“舜”;最早推广渔业的首领为“鲧”;最早推广治蛇治水的首领为“禹”。

【神话故事】
尧:即陶唐氏,名放勋,简称唐尧。传说中原始社会后期部落联盟首领。相传在位时洪水泛滥,曾命鲧治水,又命羲、和二人掌管时令,制定历法,教民按时农作。年老,谘询四岳(四方部落首领),举舜为继承人,经三年考绩,让位于舜,史称“禅让”。

尧天舜日
尧勤政爱民,是明君的典范。他取得了万众爱戴,占尽人和,却没有占有天时、地利,执政初期,即遭遇十日当空所造成的特大旱灾,到了晚年,空前绝后的大洪水又在全世界泛滥。
尧自觉年迈休衰,不宜再承担繁重的政务,便召集各国首脑开联邦会议,讨论接班人的问题。尧询问道:“各国的首脑们,我在位已经七十年了,你们谁能顺应天命取代我呢?”
“我们德行鄙陋,不配登上帝位。”各国首脑回答说。
“可以选择贵族里的俊彦,也可以举荐平民中的贤才。”
“在民间有一个贫穷的人,名字叫舜,是乐宫瞽(gǔ)叟的儿子。他的父亲心木不正,继母言而无信,弟弟傲慢无礼,而舜却能以爱心和耐性感化他的父母兄弟,与之和睦相处。以舜的孝德厚美,治理天下不至于昏庸邪恶吧?”
“让我考验-下!我把两个女儿嫁给他,从修身、齐家方面,来观察他有没有治国、平天下的能力。”尧让女儿娥皇、女英下嫁妫(guī)水湾,做舜的妻子。
一年以后,尧安排舜实习行政业务。舜受命宣传父义、母慈、兄友、弟恭、子孝五种德教,百姓都遵从他的教化而不乱性;再让舜总理朝政,各类政事也处置得井井有条;迎接四方来宾时,来朝的宾客均对他肃然起敬。最后,尧为了检验舜的定力,派遣他进入深山密林,他在暴风雷雨申亦不害怕、不困惑,不曾迷失方向。
经过长期的全方位考察和培养,尧确认舜真正具备了帝王应有的一切素质,正式宣布由他继承帝位,先摄行天子之政。
分封在南方丹水的太子丹朱因继位无望,联合具有造反传统的苗民作乱。正直的尧不徇私情,御驾亲征,在丹水歼灭叛军大部,复乘胜追击,将丹朱以及苗民残余一直赶到南海边。丹朱进退两难,走投无路,蹈海而死,魂魄化为状貌像描头鹰、脚爪似人手的朱鸟。朱鸟不停地发出“朱朱”的啼声,仿佛在呼唤自己的名字。它在哪里出现,就预示哪里的官员将被放逐。

尧与许由(越俎代庖)
尧是中国古代禅让帝位给贤人而不是禅让给自己子孙的第一人。他被人们认为是一个杰出的好皇帝。在他统治时期百姓都能安居乐业,过着幸福生活。所以百姓敬爱他,犹如敬爱父母一般。但当他听到隐士许由的道德学问比他高明以后,他就真诚地想把帝位禅让给他,请许由做皇帝。
下面就是庄子所载帝尧和许由谈话的原文。“越俎代庖”就是从这段谈话里产生的。
帝尧和许由会面的时候,帝尧非常有礼貌和诚恳地向许由说:
“日月轮番升起,光辉照人,但火炬依然未息。它发光多微弱啊!及时的雨下了不少,可田里灌溉的事仍在进行。这岂不是不必要了么?这个世界上已有伟人诞生,他能给国人带来昌盛和幸福,而我却仍然自私地坐在王位上。我为自己德才不够而深感羞愧。先生,请接纳王冠,登极为王吧。”
许由却说:“你已经把天下治理得很好了,如果我取代你,那就意味着我要夺取你的美名了。我会同你争名吗?不会的。何况所谓名,不过是虚无的东西。那么我会同你竞争虚无的东西吗?鹪鹩在树上筑巢,也不过占一根树枝;偃鼠在河边喝水,也不过喝饱而已。我为何不告老还乡呢?王冠对我又有什么用处?一位厨师也可能一时不在做菜,然而一位主持祭祀的官员又怎能放下用具离其职守而去代厨师掌勺呢?……”
后代的人,根据了上面的对话,就作成了“越俎代庖”的成语去比喻一个人去抢做不是自己份内应做的事或是去干涉旁人的事务。
(出自《庄子》)

GIVE UP ONE’S DUTY
(IN A SACRIFICE AS AN OFFICIAL) AND ACT FOR ANOTHER (FOR A COOK)—TAKE SOMEBODY ELSE'S JOB INTO ONE’S OWN HANDS
(From Zhuang Zi)
Emperor Yao (尧), one of the best emperors in China, was the first emperor who did not like to abdicate his throne to his own descendants but to the noblest and ablest man of his time. Due to his wise ruling the people enjoyed a happy life and they loved him as dearly as they loved their parents. However, when he learned that a noble hermit in the mountain by the name of Xu You (许由), who excelled him in virtue and ability, he decided he would like very much to abdicate the throne to him at once for the welfare of the people.
The following is the conversation exchanged between them as recorded in Zhuang Zi from which the famous phrase to give up one’s duty (in a sacrifice as an official) and act for another (for a cook) "to take somebody else’s job into one’s own hands" took its origin.
With great politeness and sincerity Emperor Yao addressed Xu You*
“The sun and the moon have alternatively appeared and shone with brilliance, yet the burning torch has not yet been blown out. How feeble for the torch to send forth its light. The seasonal rain has abundantly fallen, yet irrigation is still going on in the fields. Isn’t the watering unnecessary? To the world a great man has been born who is able to bring prosperity and happiness to the people, yet I still selfishly sit on the throne. I feel ashamed of my lack of virtue and ability. Come, sir, please accept my crown and act on my behalf. ”
With equal politeness Xu You replied:
“As you have already ruled the people with great success, it would mean that I am going to rob you of your good name if I am to act on your behalf. Shall I compete with you for a name? No, I will not. What is more, a good name in effect is nothing but emptiness. Then shall I compete for emptiness? A tailor bird only occupies a twig on the tree to make its nest’a tapir drinks only to its belly full from a river. Why should I not return and retire? What is the worth of a crown to me? A cook may not cook a while yet how could the official in the sacrificial service give up his duty by leaving his sacrificial implements and go to act for the cook?”
From the above conversation the later generation formed the famous saying “To give up one’s duty (in a sacrifice) as an official and act for another (for a cook)” to illustrate a case where one should not go and act for another in those things which are not within the scope of his duty to perform or where one should not interfere with other man’s business.